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UPTET (Uttar Pradesh Teacher Eligibility Test) सरकारी नौकरी , नियुक्ति परिणाम , टीईटी , UPTET , TET

UPSC CIVIL SERVICES PRELIMS 2012 PAPER-II SOLUTIONS WITH EXPLANATIONS

1. Consider the following statements:

1. All artists are whimsical.
2. Some artists are drug addicts.
3. Frustrated people are prone to become drug addicts.
From the above three statements it may be concluded that
(a) Artists are frustrated.
(b) Some drug addicts are whimsical.
(c) All frustrated people are drug addicts.
(d) Whimsical people are generally frustrated.
Ans. (b)
Exp: All artists are whimsical and some of the artists are drug addicts. Thus all those artists who are drug addict are also whimsical. Hence some drug addicts are whimsical and correct answer option is (b).
2. Examine the following statements:
1. Either A and B are of the same age or A is older than B.
2. Either C and D are of the same age or D is older than C.
3. B is older than C.
Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?
(a) A is older than B (b) B and D are of the same age
(c) D is older than C (d) A is older than C
Ans. (d)
Exp: A is more than equal to B and B is more than C. Hence A is more than C. Regarding ages of B and D, anyone can be elder or younger to anyone. Hence answer is (d).
3. Examine the following statements:
1. Only those who have a pair of binoculars can become the members of the birdwatcher’s club.
2. Some members of the birdwatcher’s club have cameras.
3. Those members who have cameras can take part in photo-contests.
Which of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?
(a) All those who have a pair of binoculars are members of the birdwatcher’s club.
(b) All members of the birdwatcher’s club have a pair of binoculars.
(c) All those who take part in photo-contests are members of the birdwatcher’s club.
(d) No conclusion can be drawn.
Ans. (b)
Exp: Only those who have binoculars can be a part of birdwatcher’s club, hence all the members of birdwatcher’s club will have binoculars for sure. But all those who have binoculars may not be part of birdwatcher’s club. Hence answer is (b).
4. During the last summer vacation, Ankit went to a summer camp where he took part in hiking, swimming and boating. This summer, he is looking forward to a music camp where he hopes to sing, dance and learn to play the guitar.
Based on the above information, four conclusions, as given below, have been made. Which one of these logically follows from the information given above?
(a) Ankit’s parents want him to play the guitar.
(b) Ankit prefers music to outdoor activities.
(c) Ankit goes to some type of camp every summer.
(d) Ankit likes to sing and dance.
Ans. (c)
Exp: No reasons are specified in the question for going to different camps. Since, Ankit goes for different camps for different years; we can surely say that right answer is (c).
5. Three persons A, B and C wore shirts of black, blue and orange colours (not necessarily in that order) and pants of green, yellow and orange colours (not necessarily in that order). No person wore shirt and pants of the same colour. Further, it is given that
1. A did not wear shirt of black colour.
2. B did not wear shirt of blue colour.
3. C did not wear shirt of orange colour.
4. A did not wear pants of green colour.
5. B wore pants of orange colour.
What were the colours of the pants and shirt worn by C, respectively?
(a) Orange and black (b) Green and blue
(c) Yellow and blue (d) Yellow and black
Ans. (b)
Exp: Solving the question we will get the following table for these three persons

6. Ten new TV shows started in January—5 sitcoms, 3 drama and 2 news magazines. By April, only seven of the new shows were still on, five of them being sitcoms.
Based on the above information, four conclusions, as given below, have been made. Which one of these logically follows from the information given above?
(a) Only one news magazine show is still on.
(b) Only one of the drama shows is still on.
(c) At least one discontinued shows was a drama.
Ans. (c)
Exp: No reason is provided for discontinuation of any program. Hence, nothing can be claimed about option (d). Although, as only 7 shows are continued, there are exactly 3 shows discontinued.  Out of these 3 shows, maximum of 2 can be news magazines. Hence, at least 1 drama has been discontinued. Hence answer is (c)

7. Read the passage given below and the two statements that follows (given on the basis of the passage) :
Four men are waiting at Delhi airport for a Mumbai flight. Two are doctors and the other two are businessmen. Two speak Gujarati and two speak Tamil. No two of the same profession speak the same language. Two are Muslims and two are Christians. No two of the same religion are of the same profession, nor do they speak the same language. The Tamil-speaking doctor is a Christian.
1. The Christian-businessman speaks Gujarati.
2. The Gujarati-speaking doctor is a Muslim.
What of the above statements is/are correct conclusion/conclusions?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c)
Exp: Assume four persons are A, B, C, D. Following table gives descriptions of these four persons.
Hence answer is (c)
8. Consider the following statement:
“Though quite expensive, television is not a luxury item, as one can learn many things through television.”
Which one of the following is a valid inference from the above statement?
(a) All expensive things is a valid inference from the above statement.
(b) All essential things for learning are not luxury.
(c) Television is essential for learning.
(d) Television is not a luxury item.
Ans. (b)
Exp: In the statement given, television is considered not to be a luxury item just because one can learn various things from it. So, we can say that anything which is essential for learning is not luxury. Hence answer is (b).
9. Mr. Kumar drives to work at an average speed of 48 km per hour. The time taken to cover the first 60% of the distance is 10 minutes more than the time taken to cover the remaining distance. How far is his office?
(a) 30 km (b) 40 km
(c) 45 km (d) 48 km
Ans. (b)
Exp: Difference between time taken to travel 60% of journey and time taken to travel 40% of journey is the time taken to travel 20% of the journey. Hence, time taken to travel 20% of journey is 10 min and thus, time taken to travel complete journey (100% of journey) is 50 minutes. Hence, total distance is .
Hence, answer is (b)
10. Gita is prettier than Sita but not as pretty as Rita. Then,
(a) Sita is not as pretty as Gita.
(b) Sita is prettier than Rita.
(c) Rita is not as pretty as Gita.
(d) Gita is prettier than Rita.
Ans. (a)
Exp: Rita is prettier than Gita and Gita is prettier than Sita. Hence, Sita is not as pretty as Gita. Hence, answer is (a).
11. Given that,
1. A is the brother of B.
2. C is the father of A.
3. D is the brother of E.
4. E is the daughter of B.
Then, the uncle of D is
(a) A (b) B
(c) C (d) E
Ans. (a)
Exp: B’s daughter is E and her brother is D. Hence, D’s uncle will be B’s brother who is A. Hence, answer is (a).
12. Examine the following statements:
1. Rama scored less than Ratna.
2. Rani scored less than Ratna.
3. Ratna scored more than Rama.
4. Padma scored more than Rama but less than Ratna.
Who scored the highest?
(a) Rama (b) Padma
(c) Rani (d) Ratana
Ans. (d)
Exp: Ratna has scored more than Padma. Padma has scored more than Rama. Rama has scored more than Rani. Hence, Ratna has scored maximum marks. Hence, answer is (d).

Directions for the following 6 (six) items:
Read the following two passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answers to these items should be based on the passages only.
Passage – 1
The poor, especially in market economies, need the strength that collectivities offer for creating more economic, social and political space for themselves, for enhancing their socioeconomic well-being and voice, and as a protection against free market individualism. It has been argued that a group approach to farming, especially in the form of bottom up agricultural production collectivities, offers substantial scope for poverty alleviation and empowering the poor as well as enhancing agricultural productivity. To realize this potential, however, the groups would need to be voluntary in nature, small in size, participative in decision making and equitable in work sharing and benefit distribution. There are many notable examples of such collectivities to be found in varied contexts, such as in the transition economies. All of them bear witness to the possibility of successful cooperation under given conditions. And although the gender impact of the family cooperatives in the transition economies are uncertain, the Indian examples of women-only groups farming offer considerable potential for benefiting women.

13. Agricultural collectivities such as group based farming can provide the rural poor
1. Empowerment.
2. Increased agricultural productivity.
3. Safeguard against exploitative markets.
4. Surplus production of agricultural commodities.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2, 3, and 4 (b) 1, 2 and 3 only
(c) 2 and 4 only (d) 1, 3 and 4 only
Ans. (b)

14. What does the author imply by “gender impact”?
(a) Women are doubtful participants in cooperatives.
(b) Family cooperatives may not include women.
(c) Women benefiting from group farming.
(d) Women’s role in transition economies is highly restrictive.
Ans. (c)
15. Consider the following assumptions:
1. It is imperative for transition economies to have agricultural collectivities.
2. Agricultural productivity can be increased by group approach to farming.
With reference to the above passage, which of these assumptions is/are valid?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2
Ans. (c)
Passage – 2
In a typical Western liberal context, deepening of democracy invariably leads to consolidation of ‘liberal values”. In the Indian context, democratization is translated into greater involvement of people not as ‘individuals’ which is a staple to liberal discourse, but as communities or groups. Individuals are getting involved in the public sphere not as ‘atomized’ individuals but as members of primordial communities drawn on religious or caste identity. Community-identity seems to be the governing force. It is not therefore surprising that the so-called peripheral groups continue to maintain their identities with reference to the social groups (caste, religion or sect) to which they belong while getting involved in the political processes despite the fact that their political goals remain more or less identical. By helping to articulate the political voice of the marginalized, democracy in India has led to ‘a loosening of social strictures” and empowered the peripherals to be confident of their ability to improve the socio-economic conditions in which they are placed. This is a significant political process that had led to a silent revolution through a meaningful transfer of power from the upper caste elites to various subaltern groups within the democratic framework of public governance.

16. According to the passage, what does “deepening of democracy” mean in the Western context?
(a) Consolidation of group and class identities.
(b) Democratization translated as greater involvement of people.
(c) Democratization as greater involvement of ‘atomized” individuals in the public sphere.
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in this context. 
Ans. (d)

17. Greater democratization in India has not necessarily led to
(a) The dilution of caste and communal identities in the public sphere.
(b) Irrelevance of community identity as a governing force in Indian politics.
(c) Marginalization of elite groups in society.
(d) Relative unimportance of hereditary identities over class identities. 
Ans. (b)

18. What is the “silent revolution” that has occurred in the Indian democratic process?
(a) Irrelevance of caste and class hierarchies in political processes.
(b) Loosening of social strictures in voting behavior and patterns.
(c) Social change through transfer of power from upper caste elites to subaltern groups.
(d) All the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above are correct in this context.
Ans. (c)
Directions for the following 5 (five) items: Examine the information given in the following paragraph and answer the items that follow:
Guest lectures on five subjects viz., Economics, History, Statistics, English and Mathematics have to be arranged in a week from Monday to Friday. Only one lecture can be arranged on each day. Economics cannot be scheduled on Tuesday. Guest faculty for History is available only on Tuesday. Mathematics lecture has to be scheduled immediately after the day of Economics lecture. English lecture has to be scheduled immediately before the day of Economics lecture.
19. Which lecture is scheduled on Monday?
(a) History (b) Economics
(c) Mathematics (d) Statistics
Ans. (d)
Exp for question 19 to 23:
Tuesday has to be History and English, Economics and mathematics has to be on consecutive days. Hence, these lectures will be scheduled as
 

20. Which lecture is scheduled between Statistics and English?
(a) Economics (b) History
(c) Mathematics (d) No lecture
Ans. (b)

21. Which lecture is the last one in the week?
(a) History (b) English
(c) Mathematics (d) Economics
Ans. (c)

22. Which lecture is scheduled on Wednesday?
(a) Statistics (b) Economics
(c) English (d) History
Ans. (c)

23. Which lecture is scheduled before the Mathematics lecture?
(a) Economics (b) History
(c) Statistics (d) English
Ans. (a)

24. Two glasses of equal volume are respectively half and three-fourths filled with milk. They are then filled to the brim by adding water. They are then filled to the brim by adding water. Their contents are then poured into another vessel. What will be the ratio of milk to water in this vessel?
(a) 1 : 3 (b) 2 : 3
(c) 3 : 2 (d) 5 : 3
Ans. (d)
Exp: Assume two vessels to be 100 liters of capacity. Hence, first beaker will have 50 liters of milk and 50 liters of water. And second beaker will have 75 liters of milk and 25 liters of water. Mixing these two, we will get 125 liters of milk and 75 liters of water. Thus, the ratio of milk and water will be 125 : 75 = 5 : 3. Hence, answer is (d).
25. Consider the following statements:
1. All machines consume energy.
2. Electricity provides energy.
3. Electrically operated machines are cheap to maintain.
4. Electrically operated machines do not cause pollution.
Which one of the following inferences can be drawn from the above statements?
(a) All machines are run by electric energy.
(b) There is no form of energy other than electricity.
(c) Most machines are operated on electric energy.
(d) Electrically operated machines are preferable to use.

Ans. (d)
Exp: As per the question, Electricity is one mode of energy and there can be other modes of getting energy. Although, question talks about positives of electricity and thus, electrically operated machines are preferable to use. Hence answer is (d).
26. Examine the following statements:
1. None but the rich can afford air-travel.
2. Some of those who travel by air become sick.
3. Some of those who become sick require treatment.
Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements?
(a) All the rick persons travel by air.
(b) Those who travel by air become sick.
(c) All the rick persons become sick.
(d) All those who travel by air are rich.
Ans. (d)
Exp: As per the first statement, only Rich persons can travel by air. Hence, answer is (d).
27. In five flats, one above the other, live five professionals. The professor has to go up to meet his IAS officer friend. The doctor is equal friendly to all, and has to go up as frequently as go down. The engineer has to go up to meet his MLA friend above whose flat lives the professor's friend.
From the ground floor to the top floor, in what order do the five professionals live?
(a) Engineer, Professor, Doctor, IAS officer, MLA
(b) Professor, Engineer, Doctor, IAS officer, MLA
(c) IAS officer, Engineer, Doctor, Professor, MLA
(d) Professor, Engineer, Doctor, MLA, IAS officer
Ans. (d)
Exp: Professor’s friend is IAS officer as denoted in the first condition. The last condition denotes that IAS officer lives in the flat above that of the MLA. This is only in the case of option (d).

Directions for the following 15 (fifteen) items:
Read the following three passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answer to these items should be based on the passages only.
Passage – I
Education, without a doubt, has an important functional, instrumental and utilitarian dimension. This is revealed when one asks questions such as 'what is the purpose of education?' The answer, too often, are to acquire qualifications for employment/upward mobility', 'wider/higher (in terms of income) opportunities', and 'to meet the needs for trained human power in diverse fields for national human power in diverse fields for national development'. But in its deepest sense education is not instrumentalist. That is to say, it is not to be justified outside of itself because it leads to the acquisition of formal skills or of certain desired psychological – social attributes. It must be respected in itself. Education is thus not a commodity to be acquired or possessed and then used, but a process of inestimable importance to individuals and society, although it can and does have enormous use value. Education, then, is a process of expansion and conversion, not in the sense of converting or turning students into doctors or engineers, but the widening and turning out of the mind the creation, sustenance and development of self-critical awareness and independence of through. It is an inner process of moral – intellectual development.

28. What do you understand by the 'instrumentalist' view of education?
(a) Education is functional and utilitarian is its purposes.
(b) Education is meant to fulfill human needs
(c) The purpose of education is to train the human intellect.
(d) Education is meant to achieve moral development.
Ans. (a)

29. According to the passage, education must be respected in itself because
(a) It helps to acquire qualification for employment
(b) it helps in upward mobility and acquiring social status.
(c) it is an inner process of moral and intellectual development
(d) All the (a), (b) and (c) given above are correct in this context.
Ans. (c)

30. Education is a process in which 
(a) students are converted into trained professionals.
(b) opportunities for higher income are generated
(c) individuals develop self-critical awareness and independence of thought.
(d) qualifications for upward mobility are acquired.
Ans. (c)
Passage – 2
Chemical pesticides lose their role in sustainable agriculture if the pests evolve resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance is simply natural selection in action. It is almost certain to occur when vast numbers of a genetically variable population are killed. One or a few individuals may be unusually resistant (perhaps because they possess an enzyme that can detoxify the pesticide). If the pesticide is applied repeatedly, each successive generation of the pest will contain a larger proportion of resistant individuals. Pest typically have a high intrinsic rate of reproduction and so a few individuals in one generation may give rise to hundreds or thousands in the next, and resistance spreads very rapidly in a population.
This problem was often ignored in the past, even though the first case of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) resistance was reported as early as 1946. There is exponential increase in the number of invertebrates that have evolved resistance and in the number of pesticides against which resistance has evolved. Resistance has been recorded in every family of arthropod (including dipterans such as mosquitoes and house flies, as well as beetles, moths, wasps, fleas, lice and mites) as well as in weeds and plant pathogens. Take the Alabama leafworm, a moth pest of cotton, as an example. It has developed resistance in one or more regions of the world to aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, lindane and toxaphene.
If chemical pesticides brought nothing but problems, - if their use was intrinsically and acutely unsustainable – then they would already have fallen out of widespread use. This has not happened. Instead, their rate of production has increased rapidly. The ratio of cost to benefit for individual agricultural producer has remained in favour of pesticide use. In the USA, insecticides have been estimated to benefit the agriculture products to benefit the agricultural products to the tune of around $5 for every $spent.
Moreover, in many poorer countries, the prospect of imminent mass starvation, or of an epidemic disease, are so frightening that the social and health costs of using pesticides have to be ignored. In general the use of pesticides is justified by objective measures such as 'lives saved', 'economic efficiency of food production' and 'total food produced'. In these very fundamental senses, their use may be described as sustainable. In practice, sustainability depends on continually developing new pesticides that keep at last one step ahead of the pests – pesticides that are less persistent, biodegradable and more accurately targeted at the pests.

31. “The evolution of pesticide resistance is natural selection in action.” What does it actually imply?
(a) It is very natural for many organisms to have pesticide resistance.
(b) Pesticide resistance among organisms is a universal phenomenon.
(c) Some individuals in any given population show resistance after the application of pesticides.
(d) None of the statements (a) (b) and (c) given is correct.
Ans. (c)

32. With reference to the passage, consider the following statement:
1. Use of chemical pesticides has become imperative in all the poor countries of the world.
2. Chemical pesticides should not have any role in sustainable agriculture.
3. One pest can develop resistance to many pesticides.
Which of the statement given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (c)

33. Though the problem associated with the use of chemical pesticides is known for a long time, their widespread use has not waned. Why?
(a) Alternatives to chemical pesticides do not exist at all
(b) New pesticides are not invented at all
(c) Pesticides are biodegradable
(d) None of the statements (a) (b) and (c) given is correct.
Ans. (d)

34. How do pesticides act as agents for the selection of resistant individuals in any pest population?
1. It is possible that in a pest, population the individuals will behave differently due to their genetic makeup
2. Pests do possess the ability to detoxify the pesticides.
3. Evolution of pesticide resistance is equally distributed in pest population.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 
Ans. (d)

35. Why is the use of chemical pesticides generally justified by giving the examples of poor and developing countries?
1. Developed countries can afford to do away with use of pesticides by adapting to organic farming, but it is imperative for poor and developing countries to use chemical pesticides.
2. In poor and developing countries, the pesticide addresses the problem of epidemic diseases of crops and eases the food problem.
3. The social and health costs of pesticide use are generally ignored in poor and developing countries
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 1 and 2 only
(c) 2 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 
Ans. (c)

36. What does the passage imply?
(a) Alternative options to chemical pesticides should be promoted.
(b) Too much use of chemicals is not good for the ecosystem.
(c) There is no scope for the improvement of pesticides and making their use sustainable.
(d) Both the statements (a) and (b) above are correct.
Ans. (d)
Passage – 3
Today's developing economies use much less energy per capita than developed countries such as the United States did at similar incomes, showing the potential for lower-carbon growth. Adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated into a climate-smart development strategy that increases resilience reduces the threat of further global warming and improves development outcomes. Adaptation and mitigation measures can advance development, and prosperity can raise income and foster better institutions. A healthier population living in better-built houses and with access to bank loans and social securing is better equipped to deal with a changing climate and its consequence. Advancing robust, resilient development policies that promote adaptation is needed today because changes in the climate, already begun, will increase even in the short term.
The spread of economic prosperity has always been intertwined with adaptation to changing ecological conditions. But as growth has altered the environment and as environmental change has accelerated, sustaining growth and adaptability demands greater capacity to understand our environment, generate new adaptive technologies and practices, and diffuse them widely. As economic historians have explained, much of humankind's creative potential has been directed at adapting to the changing world. But adaption cannot cope with all the impacts related to climate change, especially as larger changes unfold in the long term.
Countries cannot grow out of harm's way fast enough to match the changing climate. And some growth strategies, whether driven by the government or the market, can also add to vulnerability – particularly if they overexploit natural resources. Under the soviet development plan, irrigated cotton cultivation expanded in water-stressed Central Asia and led to the near disappearance of the Aral Sea, threatening the livelihoods of fishermen, herders and farmers. And clearing mangroves the natural coastal buffers against storm surges – to make way for intensive farming or housing development, increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana.
37. Which of the following conditions of growth can add to vulnerability?
1. When the growth occurs due to excessive exploitation of mineral resources and forests.
2. When the growth brings about a change in humankind's creative potential.
3. When the growth is envisaged only for providing houses and social security to the people.
4. When the growth occurs due to emphasis on farming only.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 4 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Ans. (c)

38. What does low-carbon growth imply in the present context?
1. More emphasis on the use of renewable sources of energy.
2. Less emphasis on manufacturing sector and more emphasis on agriculture sector.
3. Switching over from monoculture practices to mixed farming.
4. Less demand for goods and services.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1 and 4 only (d) None of the above implies low-carbon growth
Ans. (a)

39. Which of the following conditions is/are necessary for sustainable economic growth?
1. Spreading of economic prosperity more
2. Popularising/spreading of adaptive technologies widely.
3. Investing on research in adaptation and mitigation technology.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3
Ans. (b)
40. Which of the following inferences can be made from the passage?
1. Rained crops should not be cultivated in irrigated areas. 
2. Farming under water-deficient areas should not be a part of development strategy.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Nether 1 nor 2 
Ans. (a)
41. Consider the following assumption:
1. Sustainable economic growth demands the use of creative potential of men. 
2. Intensive agriculture can lead to ecological backlash. 
3. Spread of economic prosperity can adversely affect the ecology and environment.
With reference to the passage, which of the above assumptions is/are valid?  
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1 , 2 and 3 
Ans. (a)
42. Which one of the following statements constitutes the central theme of this passage?
1. Countries with greater economic prosperity are better equipped to deal with the consequences of climate change.  
2. Adaptation and mitigation should be integrated with development strategies. 
3. Rapid economic growth should not be pursued by both developed and developing countries.
4. Some countries resort to overexploitation of natural resources for the sake of rapid development 
Ans. (b)
Diections for the following 11 (eleven) items: Read the following three passages and answer the items that follow each passage. Your answer to these items should be based on the passages only.
Passage - 1
Invasions of exotic species into new geographic areas sometimes occur naturally and without human agency. However, human action have increased this trickle to a flood. Human-caused introduction may occur either accidentally as a consequence of human transport, or internationally but illegally to serve some private purpose or legitimately to procure some hoped-for public benefit by bringing a pest under control, producing new agricultural products or providing novel recreational opportunities. Many introduced species are assimilated into communities without much obvious effect. However, some have been responsible for dramatic changes to native species and natural communities. For example, the accidental introduction of the brown tree snake Boiga irregularies into Guam, an island in the Pacific, has through nest predation reduced 10 endemic forest bird species to the point of extinction. 
One of the major reasons for the world's great biodiversity is the occurrence of centers of endemism so that similar habitats in different parts of the would are occupied by different groups of species that happen to have evolved there. If every species naturally had access to everywhere on the globe, we might expect a relatively small number of successful species to become dominant in each biome. The extent to which this homogenization can happen naturally is restricted by the limited powers of dispersal of most species in the face of the physical barriers that exist to dispersal. By virture of the transport opportunities offered by humans, these barriers have been breached by an ever-increasing number of exotic species. The effects of introduction have been to convert a hugely diverse range of local community compositions into something much more homogeneous.
It would be wrong, however, to conclude that introducing species to a region will inevitably cause a decline in species richness there. For example, there are numerous species of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates found in continental Europe but absent from the British Isles (many because they have so far failed to decolonize after the last glaciations). Their introduction would be likely to augment British biodiversity. The significant detrimental effect noted above arise where aggressive species provide a novel challenge to endemic biotas ill-equipped to deal with them.
43. With reference to the passage, which of the following statements is correct?
(a) Introduction of exotic species into new geographical areas always leads to reduced biodiversity. 
(b) Exotic species introduced by man into new areas have always greatly altered the native ecosystems. 
(c) Man is the only reason to convert a hugely diverse range of local community compositions into more homogeneous ones..
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) is correct in this context. 
Ans. (d)
44. Why does man introduce exotic species into new geographical areas? 
1. To breed exotic species with local varieties. 
2. To increase agricultural productivity. 
3. For beautification and landscaping. 
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only (d) 1, 2 and 3 
Ans. (b)
45. How is homogenization prevented under natural conditions?
(a) Evolution of groups of species specific to local habitats.
(b) Presence of oceans and mountain ranges.
(c) Strong adaptation of groups of species to local physical and climatic conditions. 
(d) All the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above are correct in this context. 
Ans. (d)
46. How have the human beings influenced the biodiversity?
1. By smuggling live organisms. 
2. By building highways.
3. By making ecosystems sensitive so that new species are not allowed. 
4. By ensuring that new species do not have major impact on local species. 
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 (b) 2 and 3 
(c) 1 and 3 (d) 2 and 4 
Ans. (a)
47. What can be the impact of invasion of exotic species on an ecosystem?
1. Erosion of endemic species. 
2. Change in the species composition of the community of the ecosystem.
Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 
Ans. (c)
Passage - 2
Most champions of democracy have been rather reticent in suggesting that democracy would itself promote development and enhancement of social welfare- they have tended to see them as good but distinctly separate and largely independent goals. The detractors of democracy, on the other hand, seemed to have been quite willing to express their diagnosis of what they see as serious tensions between democracy and development. The theorists of the practical split-"Make up your mind: do you want democracy, or instead, do you want development?' – often came, at least to start with, from East Asian countries, and their voice grew in influence as several of these countries were immensely successful – through the 1970s and 1980s and even later – in promoting economic growth without pursuing democracy. 
To deal with these issues we have to pay particular attention to both the content of what can be called development and to the interpretation of democracy (in particular to the respective roles of voting and of public reasoning). The assessment of development cannot be divorced from the lives that people can lead and the real freedom that they enjoy. Development can scarcely be seen merely in terms of enhancement f inanimate objects of convenience, such as a rise in the GNP (or in personal incomes, or industrialization – important as they may be as means to the real ends. Their value must depend on what they do to the lives and freedom of the people involved, which must be central to the idea of development.
If development is understood in a broader way, with a focus on human lives, then it becomes immediately clear that the relation between development and democracy has to be seen partly in terms of their constitutive connection, rather than only through their external links. Even thought eh question has often been asked whether political freedom is "conducive to development", we must not miss the crucial recognition that political liberties and democratic rights are among the "constituent component" of development. Their relevance for development does not have to be established indirectly through their contribution to the growth of GNP. 
48. According to the passage, why is a serious tension perceived between democracy and development by the detractors of democracy?
(a) Democracy and development are distinct and separate goals. 
(b) Economic growth can be promoted successfully without pursuing a democratic system of governance.
(c) Non-democratic regimes deliver economic growth faster and fear more successfully than democratic ones. 
(d) All the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above are correct in this context. 
Ans. (b)
49. According to the passage, what should be the ultimate assessment/aim/view of development?
(a) Rise in the per capita income and industrial growth rates. 
(b) Improvement in the Human Development Index and GNP. 
(c) Rise in the savings and consumption trends. 
(d) Extent of real freedom that citizens enjoy.
Ans. (d)
50. What does a “constitutive” connection between democracy and development imply?
(a) The relation between them has to be seen through external links. 
(b) Political and civil rights only can lead to economic development. 
(c) Political liberties and democratic rights are essential elements of development. 
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in this context.
Ans. (c)

Passage- 3
The need for Competition Law becomes more evident when foreign direct investment (FDI) is liberalized. The impact of FDI is not always pro-competitive. Very often FDI takes the form of a foreign corporation acquiring a domestic enterprise or establishing a joint venture with one. By making such as substantially lessen competition and gain a dominant position in the relevant market, thus charging higher prices. Another scenario is where the affiliates of two separate multinational companies (MNCs) have been established in competition with one another in a particular developing economy, following the liberalization of FDI. Subsequently the parent companies overseas merge. With the affiliates no longer remaining independent, competition in the host country may be virtually eliminated and the prices of the products may be artificially inflated. Most of these adverse consequences of mergers and acquisitions by MNCs can be avoided if an effective competition law is in place. Also, an economy competition law is in a better position to attract FDI than one that has not. This is not just because most MNCs are expected to be accustomed to the operation of such a law in their home countries and know how to deal with such concerns but also that MNCs expect competition authorities to ensure a level playing field between domestic and foreign firms. 
51. With reference to the passage, consider the following statements:
1. It is desirable that the impact of Foreign Direct Investment should be pro-competitive. 
2. The entry of foreign investors invariably leads to the inflated prices in domestic markets. . 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only (b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 
Ans. (a)
52. According to the passage, how does a foreign investor dominate the relevant domestic market?
1. Multinational companies get accustomed to domestic laws. 
2. Foreign companies establish joint ventures with domestic companies. 
3. Affiliates in a particular market/sector lose their independence as their parent companies overseas  merge.
4. Foreign companies lower the cost of their products as compared to that of products of domestic companies. 
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only (d) 1, 2, 3 and 4
Ans. (b)
53. What is the inference from this passage? 
(a) Foreign investors and multination companies always dominate domestic market.
(b) It is not in the best interest of domestic economy to allow mergers companies.
(c) With competition law, it is easy ensure a level playing field between domestic and foreign firms. 
(d) For countries with open economy Foreign Direct Investment is essential for growth.
Ans. (c)
54. Examine the following statements:
1. I watch TV only if I am bored.
2. I am never bored when I have my brother's company. 
3. Whenever I go to the theatre I take my brother along. 
Which one of the following conclusions is valid in the context of the above statements?
(a) If I and bored, I watch TV.
(c) If I am bored, I seek my brother’s company. 
(d) If I am not bored, I do not watch TV. 
Ans. (d)
Exp: Since I watch TV only when I am bored, I will not watch TV if I am not bored. Hence option (d) is correct answer.

55 Only six roads A, B, C, P, Q, and R connect a military camp to the rest of the country. Only one out of A, P and R is open at any one time. If B is open during storms. P is closed during floods. In this context, which one of the following statements is correct? 
(a) Under normal conditions only three roads are open.
(b) During storms at least one road is open.
(c) During floods only three roads are open.
(d) During calamities all roads are closed. 
Ans. (b)
Exp: Since only one of A, P and R is open at a time, there will always be at least one road open during all the times. Hence, correct answer is (b).

56. Examine the following statements:
1. None but students are members of the club. 
2. Some members of the club are married persons. 
3. All married persons are invited for dance. 
Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements? 
(a) All students are invited for dance. 
(b) All married students of the club are invited for dance. 
(c) All members of the club are married persons. 
(d) None of the above conclusions can be drawn. 
Ans. (d)
Exp: Option (a) is not correct as all students are not invited and only married students are invited. Option (b) is not correct as even non member of the club can be invited for dance. Option (c) is not correct as there is a complete possibility that some members of the club are not married. Hence, correct answer to the question is (d)

57. Four political parties W, X Y and Z decided to set up a joint candidate for the coming parliamentary elections. The formula agreed by them was the acceptance of to candidate by moist of the parties. Four aspiring candidates, A, B, C and D approached the parties for their tickets.  
A was acceptable to W but not to Z. 
B was acceptable to Y but not to X. 
C was acceptable to W and Y. 
D was acceptable to W and X. 
When candidate B was preferred by W and Z, candidate C was preferred by X and Z , and candidate A was acceptable to X but not to Y, who got the ticket?
(a) A
(b) B
(c) C
(d) D
Ans. (c)
Exp: As per the question following acceptance and non acceptance are given. 

Hence, only C is accepted to all the parties and he will get the ticket. Hence, answer is (c)
58. Consider the following statements.
1. All X-brand cars parked here are white. 
2. Some of them have radial types. 
3. All X-brand cars manufactured after 1986 have radial tyres.
4. All cars are not X-brand. 
Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements ? 
(a) Only white cars are parked here.
(b) Some white X-brand cars with radial tyres are parked here.
(c) Cars other than X-brand cannot have radial tyres.
(d) Most of the X-brand cars are manufactured before 1986.
Ans. (b)
Exp: All X-branded cars parked here are white and some of them have radial tyres. Hence some white X-brand cars parked here have radial tyres and hence answer is (b).
59. Consider the following statement.
The Third World War, if it ever starts, will end very quickly with the possible end of civilization. It is only the misuse of nuclear power which will trigger it. 
(a) Nuclear power will be used in the Third World War.
(b) There will be no civilization left after the Third World War.
(c) The growth of nuclear power will destroy civilization in the long run.
(d) The Third World War will not take place.
Ans. (b)
Exp: There is a possibility of end of civilization with the use of nuclear power which will be used in third world war which if starts ever. The passage speaks very negative about misuse of nuclear power and it infers that it will be used some time or the other. Hence, answer will be (b).
60. The elements of the problem figures given below are changing with a certain rule as we observe them from left to right:
\
According to this rule, which of the following would be the next figure if the changes were continued with the same rule?
\

Ans. (d)
Exp: In the first figure, triangle is pointed towards up, followed by pointed towards down, followed by pointed towards up, followed by pointed towards down. Hence, in the answer choice triangle should point up and only option (d) is pointing up. Hence, answer is (d).
61. Consider the following informaiton regarding the performance of a class of 1000 students in four different tests:
\
If a student scores 74 marks in each of the four tests, in which one of the followint tests is her performance the best comparatively?
(a) Test I (b) Test II
(c) Test III (d) Test IV
Ans. (b)
Exp: In test II and test I, average marks are minimum and thus a score of 74 will be best relatively. Whereas since range of marks is test II is up to 75, thus his performance will be best in test II comparatively. Hence correct answer is (b).
62. Six squares are coloured, front and back, red (R), blue (B), yellow (Y), green (G), white (W) and orange (O) and are hinged together as shown in the figure given below. If they are folded to form a cube, what would be the face opposite the white face?
\
(a) R (b) G
(c) B (d) O
Ans. (c)
Exp: Joining the figure, we will realize that W and B will be opposite to each other and thus (c) is the right answer choice.
63. In the above figure, circle P represents hardworking people, circle Q represents intelligent people, circle R represents truthful people, and circle S represents honest people. Which region represents the people who are intelligent, honest and truthful but not hardworking?
\

(a) 6 (b) 7
(c) 8 (d) 11
Ans. (a)
Exp: Since, we require not hard working, option (b), (c) and (d) get eliminated and thus answer has to be (a).
64. Three views of a cube following a particular motion are given below:
\
What is the letter opposite to A?
(a) H (b) P
(c) B (d) M
Ans. (a)
Exp: In a cube, any pair of adjoining sides will have two common adjoining sides which will be opposite to each other. In the given question, these two sides are A and H. Hence, H is opposite to A. Hence correct answer option is (a).
65.
\
Which one of the figures shown below occupies the blank space (?) in the matrix given above?
\
Ans. (d) 
 Exp: In each row, first and third circle have same coloured quadrant where as the middle circle has opposite quadrant coloured. Hence (d) is the right answer. 

Directions for the followint 8 (eight) items: The following eight items  (questions 66 to 73) are based on three passages in English to test the comprehension of English language and therefore these items do not have Hindi version. Read each passage and answer the items that follow.

Passage – I
For fourteen and a half months I lived in my little cell or room in the Dehradun jail, and I b egan to feel as if I was almost a part of It. I was familiar with every bit of it, I knew every mark and dent on the whitewashed walls and on the uneven floor and the ceiling with its moth-eaten rafters. Ini the little yard outside I greeted little tufts of grass and odd bits of stone as old frients. I was not alone in my cell, for several colonies of wasp and hornets lived there, and many lizards found a home behind the rafters, emerging in the evenings in search of prey.

66. Which of the following explains best the sentence in the passage "I was almost a part of it"?
(a) I was not alone in the cell.
(b) I was familiar with every bit of the cell.
(c) I greeted little tufts of grass like old friends.
(d) I felt quite at home in the cell.
Ans. (b)

67. The passage attempts to describe:
(a) the general conditions of the country's jails.
(b) the prisoner's capacity to notice the minute details of his surroundings.
(c) the prisoner's conscious efforts to overcome the loneliness.
(d) the prisoner's ability to live happily with other creatures.
Ans. (c)

68. The author of the passage seems to suggest that:
(a) it is possible to adjust oneself to uncongenial surroundings.
(b) the conditions in Indian prisons are not bad.
(c) it is not difficult to spend one's time in a prison.
(d) there is a need to improve the conditions in our jails.
Ans. (a)

Passage – II
We started pitching the highest camp that has ever been made. Everything took five times as long as it would have taken in a place where there was enough air to breathe; but at last we got the tent up, and when we crawled in, it was not too bad. There was only a light wind, and inside it was not too cold for us to take off our gloves. At night most climbers take off their boots; but I prefer to keep them on. Hillary, on the other hand, took his off and laid them next to his sleeping bag.

69. What does the expression "pitching the highest camp" imply?
(a) They reached the summit of the highest mountain in the world.
(b) Those who climbed that far earlier did not pitch any camp.
(c) So far nobody has ever climbed that high.
(d) They were too many climbers and needed to pitch a big camp.
Ans. (c)

70. They took a long time to finish the work because:
(a) they were very tired.
(b) there was not enough air to breathe.
(c) it was very cold.
(d) it was very dark.
Ans. (b)

71. When they crawled into the tent?
(a) they took off their gloves because it was not very cold.
(b) they could not take off their gloves because it was very cold.
(c) they took off their gloves though it was very cold.
(d) they did not take off their gloves though it was not cold.
Ans. (a)
Passage – III
A local man, staying on the top floor of an old wooden house, was awakened at midnight by a fire. Losing his way in a smoke-filled passage, he missed the stairway and went into another room. He picked up a bundle to protect his face from the fire and immediately fell through the floor below where he managed to escape through a clear doorway. The "bundle" proved to be the baby of the Mayor's wife. The "hero" was congratulated by all.

72. The man went into another room because:
(a) he did not know where exactly the stairway was.
(b) the passage was full of smoke.
(c) he was extremely nervous.
(d) he stumbled on a bundle.
Ans. (b)

73. The man was called a hero because he
(a) expressed his willingness to risk his life to save others.
(b) managed to escape from the fire.
(c) showed great courage in fighting the fire.
(d) saved a life.
Ans. (d)

Directions for the following 7 (seven) items : Given below are seven items:

Given below are seven items. Each item describes a situation and is followed four possible responses. Indicate the response you find most appropriate. Choose only one response for each item. The responses will be evaluated based on the level of appropriateness for the given situation.

Please attempt all the items. There is no penalty for wrong answers for these seven items.

74. You have differences of opinion regarding the final report prepared by your subordinate that is to be submitted urgently. The subordinate is justifying the information given in the report. You would….
(a) Convince the subordinate that he is wrong.
(b) Tell him to reconsider the results.
(c) Revise the report on your own.
(d) Tell him not to justify the mistake.
Ans. (c)

75. You are competing with your batch-mate for a prestigious award to be decided based on an oral presentation. Ten minutes are allowed for each presentation. You have been asked by the committee to finish on time. Your friend, however, is allowed more than the stipulated time period. You would….
(a) Lodge a complaint to the chairperson against the discrimination.
(b) Not listen to any justification from the committee.
(c) Ask for withdrawal of your name.
(d) Protest and leave the place.
Ans. (a)

76. You are handling a time-bound project. During the project review meeting, you find that the project is likely to get delayed due to lack of cooperation of the team members. You would…
(a) Warn the team members for their non-cooperation.
(b) Look into reasons for non-cooperation.
(c) Ask for the replacement of team members.
(d) Ask for extension of time citing reasons.
Ans. (b)

77. You are the chairperson of a state sports committee. You have received a complaint and later it was found that an athelete in the junioir age category who has won a medal has crossed the age criteria by 5 days. You would….
(a) Ask the screening committee for a clarification.
(b) Ask the athlete to return the medal.
(c) Ask the athlete to get an affidavit from the court declaring his/her age.
(d) Ask the members of the sports committee for their views.
Ans. (a)

78. You are handling a priority project and have been meeting all the deadlines and are therefore planning your leave during the project. Your immediate boss does not grant your leave citing the urgency of the project. You would….
(a) Proceed on leave without waiting for the sanction.
(b) Pretend to be sick and take leave.
(c) Approach higher authority to reconsider the leave application.
(d) Tell the boss that it is not justified.
Ans. (c)

79. You are involved in setting up a water supply project in a remote area. Full recovery of cost is impossible in any case. The income levels in the area are low and 25% of the population is below poverty line (BPL). When a decision has to be taken on pricing you would….
(a) Recommend that the supply of water be free of charge in all respects.
(b) Recommend that the users pay a one time fixed sum for the installation of taps and the usage of water be free.
(c) Recommend that a fixed monthly charge be levied only on the non-BPL families and for BPL families water should be free.
(d) Recommend that the users pay a charge based on the consumption of water with differentiated charges for non-BPL and BPL families.
Ans. (c)

80. As a citizen you have some work with a government department. The official calls you again and again; and without directly asking you, sends out feelers for a bribe. You want to get your work done. You would…..
(a) Give a bribe.
(b) Behave as if you have not understood the feelers and persist with your application.
(c) Go to the higher officer for help verbally complaining about feelers.
(d) Send in a formal complaint.
Ans. (b)

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