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Major Crops in India

Rice : It is grown in almost all the states of India, but its cultivation is mostly concentrated in the river valleys, deltas and low lying coastal areas of North-East and Southern India, in the states of Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana and West Bengal. Together they contribute about 97% of the country's rice production.

Wheat : It is the most important cereal crop in India and accounts for 24% of the total cereals production in the country. Over 85% of the country's total wheat output comes from Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan; the remaining from West Bengal, Gujarat, Himachal Pradesh, Maharashtra, Jammu and Kashmir and Katnataka.

Jowar : It accounts for 10% of the total production of cereals. The leading Jowar producing states are Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Gujarat account for the remaining area and production.

Bajra : Chiefly grown in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab and Karnataka produce in small quantities.

Maize : It is grown practically in all parts of the country. Its largest concentration occurs in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Bihar, Rajasthan and Madhya Pradesh, which account for about 75% of the total area and about 63% of the total production in the country. It also occupies a substantial area in some districts of Himachal Pradesh and some districts of Jammu and Kashmir. In the South, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka are its main producers.

Barley : It is an important cereal crop in many parts of Northern India and is also used for malting in the manufacture of beer and whisky. Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan account for 74% of the total production in the country. Barley is also grown in Madhya Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, West Bengal and some districts of Bihar, Jammu and Kashlnir and West Bengal.

Ragi : Ragi is an important millet, particularly in south Karnataka, where millions use it as staple food. Karnataka is the foremost Ragi producing state. It is also grown in the North Western hilly regions of Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Bihar.
Gram : Although the crop is grown in many states, its highest concentration occurs in the dry western parts of the Great Plains in Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan, Haryana and Punjab. Together with Madhya Pradesh, these states account for about 86% of the total area under gram in the country. Bihar and West Bengal produce small quantities.

Pulses : Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Rajasthan and Karnataka account for over half of the total production of Kharif pulses in the country. Tamil Nadu, Bihar, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh are other producers.

Near 80% of the total production of Rabi pulses is produced in Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, Bihar and Odisha. The other states producing these in substantial/quantities are West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh. A small production also comes from Assam, Haryana and Maharashtra.

Sugarcane : It is also included in cash crops and accounts for 5.6% of the total value; of India's agricultural production. Uttar Pradesh produces 44% of the total production and therefore, is the foremost sugarcane producing state in India. Maharashtra contributes about 10% of the country's total production. Tamil Nadu produces 9% and Andhra Pradesh almost the same quantity. Karnataka contributes about 7%, Punjab, Haryana and Bihar together-produce about 12 to 15%. Small quantities of sugarcane is also produced in West Bengal, Rajasthan, Gujarat, Odisha and Madhya Pradesh. These states together contribute about 7% of the total production.

Cotton : India ranks next only to U.S.A. in area and next to U.S.A., Russia and China in production of Cotton. About 2/3rd of the total area and production of cotton is contributed by Gujarat, Maharashtra, Punjab and Haryana, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Andhra Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh contribute most of the remaining.

Jute : West Bengal produces over 50% of the total output of Jute in the country. Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Tripura and Meghalaya account for most of the remaining.

Tobacco : After China and U.S.A.; India is the world's largest producer of Tobacco which accounts for about 1% of the total value of India's total agricultural output. About 78% of the total production is contributed by Andhra Pradesh and Gujarat. Most of the remaining is contributed by Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Odisha, West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Maharashtra and Rajasthan in that order of importance.

Groundnut : Over 80% of production is contributed by Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Karnataka and Maharashtra. Most of the rest is distributed amongst Madhya Pradesh, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan and Odisha in that order of importance.

Tea : India has the world's largest area and production of tea. Both have increased in recent years and the country produces about 60% of the total world output of tea. The tea producing states in India are in the order of their rank, Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Karnataka, Tripura, Himachal Pradesh and Bihar.

Coffee : India's area and production of coffee constitutes only a small fraction, less than 2% of the world's total. Almost the entire area and production of coffee in India is shared by only three states: Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Rubber : India occupies the fifth place amongst the rubber producing countries. Kerala holds a virtual monopoly in rubber production in the country. Tamil Nadu produces the remaining 4 to 6% of rubber. A small production also comes from two districts of Karnataka and the Andaman and Nicobar Islands.

Coconut : Next to Philippines and Indonesia, India has the largest area under coconut in the world. In India, the cultivation of coconut is mostly confined to the coastal areas, only a small production corning from the interior parts of the Peninsula, West Bengal and Assam. Kerala contributes about 2/3rd of the annual output. Tamil Nadu comes second. Karnataka is in the third place. Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Daman and Diu, Ratnagiri district in Maharashtra, Cuttack district in Odisha, the Andaman and Nicobar Islands, West Bengal, Lakshadweep Islands, Pondicherry and Assam produce small quantities.

Cashew : Cashew is a large foreign exchange earner for India, the country being the largest exporter of cashew nuts in the world, accounting for about 65% of the total exports: Cashew nut is mostly produced in the coastal districts of Kerala, Karnataka and Goa.

Wool : About 44% of the total production is contributed by Rajasthan, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir and Madhya Pradesh.

Pali, Bikaner, Beawar and Kehri in Rajasthan; Fazilka and Amritsar in Punjab; Kulu in Himachal Pradesh; Srinagar in Jammu and Kashmir; Panipat in Haryana; Rajkot in Gujarat, Haldwani, Tanakpur, Rarnnagar, Dehradun, Agra, Jhansi, Mathura and Etawah in Uttar Pradesh; Bangalore, Raichur and Kolar in Karnataka; Eluru, Hyderabad and Warangal in Andhra Pradesh; and Salem, Chennai and Tirchirapalli in Tamil Nadu are leading wool markets in India.

Sericulture (Silk) : Next to handloom and Khadi, sericulture is the biggest village industry in the country. The silk producing states are Kashmir, Punjab, Uttar Pradesh, Karnataka and West Bengal.

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